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## Grade 1 Semester 1

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### Semester 1 Week 1 – Numbers to 10

In this lesson, students develop number sense through counting, representing numbers, and comparing values. Starting with basic counting skills, students learn to look at picture representations of numbers (e.g., a picture of 5 balls represent the value of the number 5), and are able to identify the values of those numbers, read and write the numbers, and compare the values. Applied skills include one to one correspondence, subitizing, number pattern identification, and ordering numbers.

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### Semester 1 Week 2 – Number Bonds

Number bonds are efficient, meaningful representations of parts and wholes. Like ten frames, they are useful in building understanding and practice of addition and subtraction concepts, within one visual reference. Students can use number bonds to learn how addition and subtraction are inverse operations, while developing addition and subtraction fact family fluency.

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### Semester 1 Week 3 – Addition Facts to 10

Addition Facts to 10 teaches counting on, which is essentially adding by one, increasing the total as students count. Students count objects, use pictorial representations, then apply these skills with printed numbers. They learn that addition means to add a given number onto an initial number, and that these two parts equal their combined values, thus introducing the meaning of the equal sign as requiring equivalence and not indicating a next step. Teach students to actively apply the properties of addition, and practice adding different combinations to 10. They will also determine the missing numbers in different locations within a number sentence, using number bonds.

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### Semester 1 Week 4 – Subtraction Facts to 10

The concept of subtraction centers around the difference between a larger and a smaller number. Students will learn that one part is taken away from a larger whole, and the order of these cannot be reversed. Counting back is a useful tool to introduce this concept, since numbers become smaller in value when counting backwards, Students can practice this concretely on a ten frame or pictorially with a number line. As in addition, students should reinforce understanding of parts equalling a whole. In subtraction they are determining the unknown whole number. They continue to practice understanding the concept of equal, since the value of a part removed from a whole equals the remaining part.

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### Semester 1 Week 6 – Numbers to 20

In this lesson, students apply both base ten and place value understanding, as they extend their counting past ten. Numbers are represented by place value: tens and ones. It is important to show students that ten individual ones can be grouped into a ten (a group of ten ones), to help them visualize the value of the whole number. With this knowledge, students can base their knowledge of numbers off of ten and then compare two digit number values, and determine patterns in number sequences.

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### Semester 1 Week 8 – Addition within 20

Students are taught to use more efficient strategies to add numbers with sums up to 20. Strategies include counting on from the highest number understood, adding by place value tens and ones, decomposing numbers to first form a ten, then adding on the remaining value, and creating equivalent but known sums. Learning these strategies helps to develop fluency in basic addition facts, while also teaching students how to use their knowledge of numbers to solve the problem. Students can then progress to more complex concepts, such as finding a missing added, which ties into subtraction.

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### Semester 1 Week 12 – Subtraction within 20

Students are taught to use more efficient strategies to subtract numbers from totals up to 20. Strategies include counting backwards from the starting number, subtracting by place value tens and ones, decomposing numbers to result in ten, then subtracting the remaining value, and using the relationship between addition and subtraction. Students can use these strategies to develop fluency in basic subtraction facts, which mirror addition facts. Developing fact fluency and using efficient strategies is important to effectively solve word problems.

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### Semester 1 Week 16 – Addition and Subtraction Word Problems

Teach students to efficiently solve word problems requiring addition and subtraction to totals of 20. Introduce students to bar modeling which represents known and unknown values, and can be taught in both the concrete and pictorial levels. Bar modeling is extremely effective in representing all types of addition and subtraction problems, able to represent any unknown value: sum, missing addend, difference, minuend, or subtrahend.

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### Semester 1 Week 18 – *Ordinal Numbers and Positions

In this lesson, students learn how to describe the position of physical or picture representations of objects in a line in relation to a reference point. Ordinal number based questions can be used as a springboard for students to use logic in determining additional information.